Tuesday, March 26, 2013
If Bihar does not have the criteria for special status, the parameter of special status needs to be urgently changed. And if it is not possible immediately, Bihar must be tagged as Backward state and provided enough financial package immediately. It is the birth right of Bihar and without its all round development, the national development will remain incomplete. Biharis are intelligent, talented, laborious, hardworking and committed to take the nation forward in all fields. Wherever in the country development is visible, the contribution of Biharis is there. It is the lack of opportunities in Bihar because of its backwardness, there has been migration of people from the state in search of livelihood in different parts of the country. Though Bihar has been developing fast for the last eight years under chief minister Nitish Kumar and it has left behind all states this financial year by recording 11.99 percent economic growth, it deserves special status to match the national development indices very quickly. It is one of the most backward states of India if all round development is taken into account. It is also the first among so-called 'Bimaru' states. That is why it must have the tag of backwardness and thereby the adequate financial package from the Centre. Chief Minister Nitish Kumar has been demanding special status for Bihar. He held a mammoth meeting at Ramlila Maidan ground in Delhi on March 17 to demand special status for Bihar. Bihar may not be fulfilling the criteria for special status but undoubtedly it deserves the tag of backward state. The economic growth rate achieved by Bihar in the financial year 2012-2013 under Chief Minister Nitish Kumar has been profusely praised by none other than Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and Finance Minister P Chidambram. There may be political interest behind the praise by the PM and the FM in the given fluid political scenario where the ruling Congress-led UPA at the Centre is getting weaker and weaker day by day with its alliance partners like TMC ,DMK and some other small parties breaking away from it. Samajwadi party of Mulayam Singh Yadav supporting from outside till now is also threatening to withdraw its support anytime. In order to offset any possibility of uncertainty about the UPA at the Centre before 2014, the Congress has also swung into action by showing warmth towards Nitish Kumar as his JD(U) is in a mood to break alliance with BJP if it projected Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi as prime ministerial candidate in 2014 Lok Sabha. He had already shown aversion to Narendra Modi in 2010 when he did not allow him to enter Bihar for electioneering in assembly elections for JD(U)-BJP. Nitish has also made clear that the candidate for prime minister must be of secular credentials. Modi is in no way considered to be secular and the stigma of Gujarat riot of 2002 is still on him. The rally, meeting and signature campaign for the demand of special status to Bihar has been spearheaded by JD(U) only. Its coalition partner BJP in the state has been kept aside from this campaign. Congress knows it very well that if ever BJP projected Naredra Modi as prime ministerial candidate of which there is strong possibility, JD(U) will take no time in parting ways with BJP in NDA. Having political interest in mind, the Centre will certainly grant backward tag to Bihar and thereby pump economic package to the state to keep Nitish Kumar in good humour. And on the issue of secularism, Nitish Kumar may extend his party's outside support to UPA to run its course.
Saturday, March 23, 2013
Supreme Court of India has given its verdict in the 20 years old case of 1993 Mumbai Blasts. The apex court handed down 5 years imprisonment to celebrated and popular film actor Sanjay Dutt in this case for possessing prohibited weapons. He has not been held guilty of involvement in the blasts. He has also not been held a terrorist by the highest court of the land. Undoubtedly, the 1993 Mumbai blasts which took 257 innocent lives, injured several and brought unending misery on many families. So, whoever has been found guilty of involvement in this heinous crime must be punished stringently. Sanjay Dutt has not been found connected with Mumbai blasts. As far as the chorus for letting off Sanjay Dutt is concerned, Press Council of India Chairman Justice Markanday Katju has appealed Maharashtra Governor K Sankarnarayan to grant pardon to the film actor Sanjay Dutt on humanitarian ground. Many are in full agreement with the appeal of Justice Katju. Even the Supreme Court has also decreased the period of his imprisonment from six to five years. Sanjay Dutt has already gone 18 months of imprisonment and suffered a lot during these 20 years. During this period, Sanjay suffered a lot and had a cloud hovering over his head throughout. He had to undergo various tribulations and indignities during this period. He had to go to court often, he had to take the permission of the court for foreign shootings, and he could not get bank loans. It is correct that due to his imprisonment, his wife, children, family and bollywood would suffer a lot at this juncture. For possessing prohibited weapons, there is minimum of 5 and maximum of 10 years imprisonment. The gun found with him is not an ordinary gun that sold in the market. License is not issued for AK-56 to any individual. Sanjay Dutt family background, personal behaviour, talent in the bollywood and inadvertent illegal action make a strong case for his pardon. He may have no knowledge of law that it is illegal to have unlicensed weapons, though ignorance of law is no excuse. But for this, he had already gone imprisonment of 18 months and during this ordeal he must have reformed himself. Justice Katju has made appeal under article 161 of the Constitution wherein there is clear provision that Governor could grant pardon to the convict. Nanawati case is already there for example before us. Nanawati case was a murder case and the case against Sanjay Dutt is illegal possession of weapons. So, Justice Katju’s appeal to grant pardon Sanjay Dutt is not misplaced and the Governor of Maharastra may consider it on humanitarian ground. Though all are equal before law, the case of Sanjay Dutt deserves humanitarian consideration as the incident happened 20 years ago in which he was not found to be involved. The case against him is virtually of illegal possession of weapons.
Tuesday, March 19, 2013
DMK pulling out UPA has been necessitated by the domestic political compulsion of Tamil Nadu where each Tamil political party is in race to score political points on its rival over the issue of Sri Lankan Tamil. It has nothing to do with the national interest. Whether the DMK pulls out of the Congress-led UPA and breaks its 9 year old relations with the government at the Centre to keep its political interest in Tamil Nadu intact or not matters little for the UPA as it would make no impact on its health. DMK has taken this drastic step to show full solidarity with Sri Lankan Tamils to put pressure on the UPA government to adopt stringent amendment to US sponsored resolution at UNHRC against Sri Lanka. DMK’s pulling out of UPA-II is also not a matter of any significance for the nation. It is the interest of the nation that matters most. It must be kept above all domestic political considerations. DMK has pulled out of UPA government for allowing the watering down of US resolution against Sri Lanka at UNHRC and not considering its suggestion on the matter. Though the three UPA ministers had met DMK Chief and persuaded him not to pull out of the UPA a day earlier in Chennai, he saw the interest of his party in going with Elam Tamil and announced the pulling out of the UPA on Tuesday. DMK has 18 MPs in Lok Sabha. Its pulling out will make no impact on the stability of the UPA government at the Centre so long as both the archrivals SP and BSP of UP continued to support it from outside. This shows the management skill of Congress that has struck fine balance between the two arch rivals. As far as the stand of India at UNHRC on US sponsored resolution against Sri Lanka is concerned, it is for the government to tackle the issue diplomatically and not come under domestic political pressure of its ally to deal with the issue. The UPA government has already voted on UN resolution against Sri Lanka under pressure from southern Tamil political parties. It is for India to decide to decide how to handle the issue at UN. The interest of the nation must be kept above all considerations. One of the amendments that the DMK suggest is to declare that genocide and war crimes had been committed and inflicted on the Eelam Tamils by the Sri Lankan Army and the administrators. The second is establishment of a credible and independent international commission of investigation in a time bound manner into the allegations of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and violations of international human rights law, violations of international humanitarian law and crime of genocide against the Tamils.
Friday, March 15, 2013
Indian Parliament has rightly given befitting reply by rejecting outright Pak resolution passed by its National Assembly condemning the hanging of Parliament attack accused Afzal Guru. Pakistan has deliberately interfered in our internal affairs. It must be rebuffed resolutely. The motive of passing the resolution of condemnation of Parliament attack accused Afzal Guru's hanging is to provoke the people of Jammu and Kashmir against the government of India. It was necessary for India to show the solidarity and unity of the nation against any attempt by any corner of the world to interfere in our internal matter. The show of unity in both of Houses of Parliament against the censure resolution passed by National Assembly of Pakistan is praise worthy. The entire state of Jammu and Kashmir and the territory under illegal occupation of Pakistan is and shall be the integral part of India. By passing the resolution in National Assembly against the hanging of a proclaimed terrorist, Pakistan has shown open support to terror in India. Pakistan itself has been the breeding ground of terrorism. It has been running nursery schools of terror. World' most wanted terrorist Osama bin laden had been living in the backyard of Pakistani military cantonment before he was killed by the American military. India has borne the brunt of Pak-sponsored terror most. So, India must brought the Pak Assembly resolution of March 14 to the notice of world's sole super power the US so that it could know how terror is encouraged by its ally in international coalition to fight against terrorism. Pakistan is also the protégé of the US. On the one hand Pakistan has committed that it would not allow the terror act against India from its soil and it has passed the resolution condemning the hanging of Parliament attack accused Afzal Guru on the other only to provide support to the extremist and separatist elements in Jammu and Kashmir, who are protesting against the same thing. So, by condemning the hanging of Guru, Pakistan is only promoting terrorism and secessionism in Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere in India. Parliament has rightly rejected Pakistan resolution on Afzal Guru and told it to desist from such acts. The Lok Sabha has also rightly passed a resolution asserting that the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the territory under illegal occupation of Pakistan, is and shall always be an integral part of India.
Tuesday, March 12, 2013
Whether the Delhi gang rape prime accused Ram Singh committed suicide or murdered is a matter of investigation. But one thing is clear from his hanging that there is a serious lapse in security and vigilance inside the country's high security Tihar Jail. It was the warder of Tihal jail who saw the main accused of Delhi gang rape hanging at 5.30 AM in the morning while he was making rounds of the cells. He immediately alerted Tihar jail staff. The 55-year-old Tihar jail is one the largest in Asia and the country’s foremost high-security prison. It has more than 12,000 inmates although it has an official capacity of about 6,000. It is equipped with CCTV cameras, mobile phone jamming devices, scanners and metal detectors. In the last few years, it has also had well-publicized rehabilitation programmes for prisoners. The hardened criminals are kept in this jail. Though according to legal eagles, the death of the prime accused in the case will have no impact on the proceedings of the trial, the circumstances under which he committed suicide have created several doubts. From the news paper reports, it was clear that he was remorseless about the gruesome gang rape and killing of 23 year old paramedic student on the moving bus. The prime accused Ram Singh was the ring leader of the gang. He was neither depressed nor remorseless and according to his counsel, he was happy with the proceedings of the trial of the case. How could it be possible that one of the four cellmates hung to eight feet high grill meant for ventilation and the other 3 mates, who were sleeping in the same cell, did not have any idea? Ram Singh’s other three inmates remain asleep during which he hanged himself to death. His right hand was reportedly deformed so he would have tightened the noose around his neck single-handedly. All this makes the theory of his hanging suspicious, though postmortem report says that he died due to hanging. Ram Singh was a short-sized man barely of 5 fit and 5 inches. He had taken the help of the bucket to hang himself to eight fit high grill to death. The arrangement for hanging himself to death made by the prisoner can not be possible in half an hour. How could he tore the carpet and made the thick and strong cord to hang himself and haw could it be possible that no fellow prisoners saw him doing all these things? So, the picture is completely unclear and the suspicion of murder can also not be out of place. It is not the first time that the prisoner in high security Tihar jail killed himself in mysterious circumstances. It is also clear that the prime accused Ram Singh would have apprehensions that he would be given death sentence by the court of law. No prisoner is guilty until proven by the court of law of the land. It was the responsibility of Tihar security authorities to ensure that every prisoner is safe and secure within its premises. The death of the Delhi Gang rape prime accused in Tihar jail under mysterious circumstances has exposed the lapses on the part of jail administration and security.
Saturday, March 9, 2013
Welcoming guest is our culture and tradition; however, the guest may belong to our hostile neighbour. It is our culture, courtesy and tradition to welcome even the enemy when he comes to our door. But at the same time it is not proper to make inference from our welcoming Pak PM Raja Pervez Ashraf that we have forgotten the inhuman act of beheading an Indian soldier, killing another brutally by Pak soldiers and 26/11 Mumbai attack. These tragic incidents are fresh in our mind. And we will try our best to bring the culprits to justice. Pak PM is coming to Ajmer Sharif to offer prayer at the 13 century old dargah of Moinuddin Hasan Chisti. He has offered prayers and sought peace and happiness in Pakistan and the entire world. People from all corners visit and offer prayer there. Most of the heads of government and state of Pakistan have visited Ajmer Sharif and sought to fulfill their wishes and aspirations. Pak PM is following the footstep of his predecessors. All have visited when they are confronted with problems. Raja is also facing the charge of graft and because of the alleged graft charge in Pak Power Project Randal against him he is also known as Raja Randal. This is domestic problem and we have nothing to do with it. He is coming a pilgrimage and being the prime minister of our neighbouring country, he must be facilitated with due respect. External Minister Salman Khurshid has rightly hosted lunch for Pak PM with all respect and humility to maintain the courtesy and tradition of our nation. In the wake of the beheading of an Indian soldier and the brutal killing of another by the Pak Soldiers, the sentiment of all Indians is bruised and hurt. The anger is prevailing over Pak soldiers inhuman act all over the nation. The opposition of the spiritual head of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti to his visit to Ajmer Sharif embodies and reflects national mood. But as he has come on a pilgrimage and it is his private visit, he should be offered all facilities as were to the other Pakistani dignitaries who had already visited to Ajmer Sharif before him. As far as Pak-sponsored terrorism is concerned, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh has already made known to all that until Pak stops sponsoring terrorism, dialogue process can not continue. It means that there will be no talk with Pakistan until it stops promoting terror in India and help normalize relation. This is the right stand taken by Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in regard to future talks with Pakistan.
Friday, March 8, 2013
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh appeared aggressive in Parliament on the motion of thanks on President’s address. He appeared upset over the scathing remarks on the performance of the UPA government under him made by the BJP leaders at their party's national council meeting concluded recently in Delhi. BJP poster boy and Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi called the Congress party termite and MP CM Shiv Raj Singh Chauhan described both PM Dr. Singh and Congress Vice President Rahul Gandhi as two Mauni Babas. If the BJP remarks hurt them most, he should have patience and replied them with action and not in aggressive words. There is still no action by the UPA government visible to check price rise and corruption. It is correct that the people have elected UPA-I and UPA-II to power in 2004 and 2009 respectively. They have rejected the BJP in the last two Lok Sabha elections. But they have not given the mandate to Congress-led UPA government of PM Dr. Singh to see the runaway price of all commodities and tsunami of scandals as mute spectator. UPA Govt. must not sit idle to the surfacing of tsunami of scandals on daily basis and price of all commodities should going up and up. People are looking out for opportunity to teach the govt. a lesson, which they would never forget. It is correct that the UPA-I under Prime Minister Manmohan Singh managed all national affairs well and kept the economy growing despite the downturn elsewhere in the world. No scandal had surfaced during UPA-I. Prices were in control. But the spate of scandals that have surfaced on daily basis in the last four years during the UPA-II and shooting up of inflation are anything to go by, there certainly appears that this UPA-II is headless, helpless and directionless. And only God can save the nation. Now the time is running out very fast and Lok Sabha elections are scheduled to go next year. So, UPA-II govt. is required to be decisive in action to manage economy and check corruption. But no measure step appears in sight. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s integrity, credibility and honesty are unquestioned but the Cabinet over which he presides is under scanner. He either appears to be a guard of the nation who has been given gun without cartridge to prevent the robbery of national wealth or lacking will to take stringent measures to check price rise. The BJP leaders’ remarks against the Congress-led UPA-II may not be sanctified but the UPA Government deserves no praise for worsening situation in the country. The average economic growth rate may be a little better than the previous six years rule of BJP-led NDA but the rising corruption with spate of corruption and unbridled price rise of all commodities have made the lives of the poor unbearable.
Wednesday, March 6, 2013
Police personnel appear to have lost all sense of sensitivity. State governments of Punjab and Bihar have left them unbridled. If the police action of thrashing a woman in Tarn Taran of Punjab and canning and thrashing of contractual teachers before the state assembly in Patna caught on Camera is anything to go by, there is no doubt left in the mind of the people that our democratically elected governments in the states are sliding in regression. It also appears that the democratically elected governments encourage police brutality on the people. The Supreme Court of India has rightly taken strong exception of recent incidents of police beating protesting contractual teachers in Bihar and a girl in Tarn Taran in Punjab by seeking explanation from these two states on the conduct of police personnel. Police is meant for protecting and providing security to the common. What crime had the woman in Tarn Taran had committed that the six police personnel canned and pushed her all around in full view of the public. Regression has set in the society also. December 16 Delhi gang rape victim was crying in pain on the roadside after she was thrown out of moving bus but no scooter, biker and car-borne persons passed by her side slowly but did not stop to provide rescue to her. Likewise, no onlookers in Tarn Taran objected to the beating of the woman by police men. She had gone to police only for lodging complaint about her molestation by truckers. The fixed pay teachers- male and female- were beaten badly by police force in Patna outside the state assembly because were protesting for regularization of services and pay parity with government teachers. The state where the teachers are beaten by the police what improvement in education can be made there. The appointment of contractual teachers was made without following any standard of parameters of selection. They were appointed on a local basis on a lump sum amount in order to build a strong vote bank. Now, when they demand parity with full-fledged government teachers, they are beaten by the police. As no criteria of educational standard were followed in selection, the standard of education in primary schools has gone all time low in Bihar. The protest is the right of the citizen in democracy. The way the police personnel were chasing the lady teachers in Patna amply reflect that the state government has lost all sense of respect for women. From the incidents of Tarn Taran and Patna, it appears crystal clear that once the political parties are elected to power, they use the police to suppress the voices of the people. The government uses police as bulwark against all attacks on its functioning. The Patna contractual teachers' protest makes it amply clear that the police personnel have lost all sense of sensitivity. The time has come for civil society to come forward and oppose tooth nail police atrocities on women.
Monday, March 4, 2013
The way the police officer was killed in Kunda of Pratapgarh district in Uttar Pradesh allegedly by the henchmen of the controversial former UP Minister Raghuraj Pratap Singh alias Raja Bhaiya paints the law and order position in the state at its lowest ebb. The situation can aptly be described as Jungle Raj in Uttar Pradesh. When police officer is not safe, what to talk about the safety of common men. Though increasing lawlessness is not new for the people of UP in the regime of Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav, the previous regime of SP boss former Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav was no better than the present dispensation of the party. Under pressure from the media and the opposition so far as the law and order is concerned. In the 2007, the BSP supremo and former CM Mayawati came to power after thrashing SP in the assembly elections mainly because of worsening law and order condition in the incumbent regime. Though under excessive media and opposition pressure , the controversial minister had to resign, this not the solution. Raja Bhaiya is allegedly known for goondaism. There must be immediate enquiry into the killing of DSP and whoever found guilty must be punished to restore the confidence of the people in SP regime. Raja Bhaiya had already undergone imprisonment under Pota in 2002. He was released from the jail under Mulayam Singh regime when Pota became null and void. The case against Raja Bhaiya has been lodged by the deceased DSP's wife. He is alleged to have conspired the killing of the DSP. The DSP had gone to make enquiry into the killing of a gram Pradhan where he was allegedly surrounded by some goons of Raja Bhaiiya, attacked and finally gunned down. It has been rightly said when once it was tested that SP regime was synonymous with deteriorating law and order, it was nothing but the wrong decision of the voters of the state who have elected the Samajwadi Party to power with overwhelming majority. Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav is young, energetic, well-educated and well intentioned. The people of Uttar Pradesh have a very high expectation from him. To keep law and order good and strict should be his prime responsibility. It is on the law and order front on which the SP regime has always been very vulnerable. And prevailing lawlessness makes deep negative impact on all affairs of the state. Law and order must be enforced at all costs. As law and order is a state subject, it is totally the failure of the state government to enforce. First of all, Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav must not have taken those whose credentials are incriminating into his Council of ministry. Raja Bhaiya’s credential is already doubtful so far as his criminal background is concerned. So, the CM must come forward and take strict action against all those who violate law of the land, no matter who they are.
Saturday, March 2, 2013
The BJP National Council meeting is going on upbeat mood in Delhi. Amid calls for a larger role for him, Narendra Modi today won singular praise from BJP President Rajnath Singh for being the most popular CM having registered never before three consecutive electoral wins for the party. The party leaders are very much optimistic about unseating the Congress-led UPA government from the Centre in 2014 Lok Sabha elections. The newly elected BJP President Rahnath Singh is lauding the achievement of Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi, who is also considered to be the front runner in the race of prime ministerial aspirants among his party leaders in 2014 elections. Mr. Singh has rightly praised Modi and called upon the assembled leaders to give him standing ovation for his record three consecutive victory in Gujarat assembly elections. Singh's praise for Narendra Modi reflects that the BJP wants to know the people's reaction to his eulogy. Undoubtedly, Narendra Modi is the most popular leader of BJP today and it is clear he is also the most popular leader among party cadres. In the given political scenario, how much unpopular the Congress-led UPA government at the Centre may be but the BJP can not win elections on its own even under the leadership of Naredra Modi. BJP is the biggest partner and leader of NDA. JD (U) is the second biggest constituent of NDA, which has open reservation about Narendra Modi’s name in the BJP. After from JD(U), BJP patriarch Lal Krishna Advani and some other top national leaders are not in total favour of Modi. They also aspire to be considered as prime ministerial candidates. BJP always says officially that its parliamentary board will make announcement about prime ministerial candidate as and when required. As BJP is the largest party in NDA, it has every right to declare its candidate. But the name of whichever leader it declares as prime ministerial candidate in Lok Sabha elections 2014, he or she must have acceptance among all the constituents of NDA. Otherwise, all the day dreaming of defeating UPA can come to a naught. First of all, Naredra Modi can not be accepted as the prime ministerial candidate of NDA by JD (U). It means if the BJP takes risk of announcing Narendra Modi as prime ministerial candidate, the JD (U) will break away from the NDA immediately as it has already made it clear that the prime ministerial candidate must be of secular credentials. Naredra Modi can not be considered as secular leader if the infamous Gujarat Riot 2002 is anything to go by. How upbeat mood may prevails in the BJP at the prospect of Naredra Modi as prime ministerial candidate but it is utmost necessary to the NDA intact to realize the aspiration of defeating UPA in 2014 Lok Sabha elections.
Friday, March 1, 2013
Left parties need to expand its base from Tripura, West Bengal and Kerala. It has already lost West Bengal and Kerala to TMC and Congress-led United Democratic Front (UDF) respectively. It has now only Tripura where it has held its bastion intact by paving the way for the installation of 7th Left Front Government since 1967. Left Front under the Trupra Chief Minister Manik Sarkar has improved up on its previous performance in 2008 assembly elections in the state. Tripura CM Manik Sarkar is known for honesty, integrity and pursuing the left ideology in letter and spirit. He has delivered a clean government. Being in power for a long time has not cast evil influence on the government machineries of Tripura. Left party leaders barring a few both at Central and state levels have never been charged with corruption. The Left was thrown out of power in West Bengal because of its failure to accommodate and adapt to the changing economic scenario of the nation as well as the world. It also lost power in West Bengal because of its weakening control on party cadres and their highhandedness, which caused ire among the common people that was exploited to the hilt by West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Bannerjee and Trinamool Congress boss in throwing it out of power. The nation needs a strong left front to keep the centrist and the rightist political parties in check. It has often been experienced that whenever the time comes to raise voice for the cause of the people, it is only the left parties which come in the forefront. If the ground reality in village after village is taken into consideration, more than 60 percent of our population is living below the poverty line. Left parties can be an alternative for these poor people to Congress and BJP on their own if they could fan their cadres in every village and convince them about the duplicity of the two main political parties which misguide them on the basis of caste, creed, religion and community in election time. Their economic policies are only meant to benefit the 10 percent of our population in whose hands the entire wealth of the nation is concentrated and the poor remained poor even after 65 years of our independence. The Left parties must take the message from their Tripura bastion to every corner of the nation and make the people aware about the charismatic leadership of Tripura Chief Minister Manik Sarkar. It is undoubtedly the good governance and feel good atmosphere for the majority of the people that they have given mandate to Left Front for 7th consecutive time in Tripura. The assembly elections in Tripura, Nagaland and Meghalaya have also given clear message to the Congress party that it has no longer the hegemony in the entire north-eastern states. Left Front has retained Tripura, NPF has retained Nagaland and only Meghalaya has been retained by Congress. Lok sabha elections are scheduled to be held next year. So, it is the call of the time for Left to go full hog for the poor of the nation in Lok sabha elections.